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Barangai=Brangay + I

Design Resilience in Asia, Urban Design

Valenzuela, Phillipines

2016 March-June

2018 IFLA APPME Honorable Mention under 

Flood and Water Management Category

Team Lead:Danyu Zeng

Team Member:Shiqi Chen, Jieqiang Chen,

Jian Huang, Ruinian Zhang

Barangay, a Filipino word referring to local community, mostly infiltrated by the Bayanihan spirit that shows the willingness to offer help to others without expecting anything in return and it is symbolized by moving the entire house before floods. This community spirit is also reflected on communal farming and building construction.

The project aims to design resilience for Filipino communities in floods. It adopts the social pattern to urban and architectural design as a from-bottom-up intervention. While the urban design includes the whole process lead by community force to build community centers and gardens for each block, allowing the self-resilience within a unit, the architectural design focuses on the underprivileged families living in vulnerable huts that are most susceptible to floods. Not until one community unit completely gets improved and perfected, a new unit is implemented and starts its circle.

As a strategy of urban renewal, the design of the resilient circle will gradually change the urban fabric, starting from one fleck, and subsequently spreading out into clusters.

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The site situated along Polo River, the rural area of Valenzuela City, the Philippines. Valenzuela is a flood prone city which is below sea level and practically also along the coastal area. The area susceptible to frequent typhoons (about 6 times per year) and intense tropical storms leading to floods (about 8 times per year). Another urgent problem is population explosion. Compared with the average growth rate of population in the Philippines (2.04%), Valenzuela face a more serious situation with a double figure (4.93%), addressing the needs of new houses to be built in undeveloped area.

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项目场地位于菲律宾瓦伦苏埃拉市(Valenzuela)的Polo河旁边,是市郊的一个低洼地,位于海平面以下,常常受到洪水侵害。该区域经常受到台风侵害(一年六次左右),和热带气旋带来的洪水(一年八次左右)。除了自然灾害,另一个严峻的问题是人口爆炸。与菲律宾平均人口增长率2.04%相比,瓦伦苏埃拉市的人口增长达到率4.93%,在未开发的市郊,为容纳更多的人口产生了新的住宅需求。

Through detailed research and studies of the Filipino culture, we extracted a central idea from two indigenous words “Barangay” and “Bayanihan”. The former one refers to community led by a captain or Datu in the past, and the latter demonstrates Filipinos’ willingness to help each other without expecting anything in return during disasters. We decided to take a community as a unit to transform the urban environment from bottom up by spreading out the units. Four elements constitute each unit: 40-50 households, community center and vegetable garden and fishing industry.

在对菲律宾进行研究时,我们提取了一个与当地传统文化相关的词语,巴朗盖(Barangay),意为菲律宾社区。巴朗盖有一个衍生的词语Bayanihan,这个词是当地互帮互助、不求回报的精神文化的象征——社区精神。最初,这个词是指向当地人在洪水来临前,邻里间互相帮忙搬房子以躲避洪水的传统,此后Bayanihan社区精神更是渗透到其他的社区活动,如社区建造、社区花园等等。

 

因此,我们决定以社会文化——Barangay社区互帮互助的Bayanihan精神,作为运作模式,以社区为能自我更新的单元,采用自下而上的手段进行干预,通过点状逐步扩散的城市更新手段和当地人自发建造的力量达到抵御洪水的弹性设计目的。

 

我们设计的这个能自我更新的单元由三个元素组成:“40-50个家庭”组成的社区,“社区公共活动中心“,”蔬菜花园和渔业”组成的社区产业。

Vegetable Garden System

蔬菜花园

For the vegetable garden, it is initially developed to meet their own demands food supply for the community in both disastrous and normal periods, while utilising the vertical space and the vacant land in each block. The agricultural industry is expected to flourish in the future and by then, with the better harvest, residents can start to run a business in cater to the fact that the City Government of Valenzuela plans to convert these areas into an ecotourist

destination.

我们计划在当地社区中引入蔬菜花园,这是为了满足社区自给自足的生活需求。蔬菜花园——将地块中心的空地用于耕种,同时在社区中心建立小型垂直农业。同时蔬菜花园还可以和场地现有的渔业结合,达到农业和渔业的共生发展。

随着时间的发展,社区产业逐渐繁荣,当社区产业产量大于社区自身需求的时候,就可以对外出售,逐渐发展起相关的经济产业,比如农家乐及相关旅游产业。这和瓦伦苏埃拉市政府对该区域发展生态旅游产业的规划不谋而合。

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Community Construction

​社区建设

For the construction of new houses, we focus on the underprivileged families living in vulnerable huts that are most susceptible to floods by accounting for factors such as local construction techniques and construction feasibility based on a limited budget. The proposal is a group of houses that can be aggregated into a community during disasters and separated as individual dwellings in normal period. The material is also available in situ: coconut wood as the main structure, nipa as the woven wall and corrugated steel sheet as roof.

社区建设包括两部分:其一是私人住宅,我们把关注点放在没有经济能力的家庭上,他们负担不起稳固的混凝土房屋的建设费用。因此在非常有限的预算下,我们以当地原有的传统棚屋“尼帕屋Nipa Hut”为原型,运用当地的材料——椰子木、尼帕叶——为他们设计一个可以满足当地技术而自主搭建的房屋方案。房屋的设计满足几个特点:本土材料、低预算、低技术、轻质可移动。其二是公共的社区中心,社区中心的结构必须稳固,可供人们在平时进行社区活动,洪水时期避难,我们将社区中心设计为两层的平台,灾时首层可用作社区的避难中心,二层用以放置可移动的轻质房屋。

尼帕屋Nipa Hut:菲律宾当地的一个传统木构棚屋,因屋顶常用当地一种植物叶子——尼帕叶为覆顶材料而得名

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Community Construction

发展轴

Each unit will experience a building process: barangay community is established and led by a leader; new nipa huts and community center are constructed by local people and guided by the proposed handbook; agriculture and fishing provide economic support; the infrastructure is improved; the residents who originally live in the nipa huts will donate their huts for new comer after they are affordable to move into a new permanent house.

 

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每个社区单元都会经历一个发展轴:巴朗盖社区的建立——社区集体建造新的尼帕屋和社区中心——社区农业和渔业提供自给自足的经济支持——社区产业繁荣——社区基础设施完善——原来住在尼帕屋的家庭有经济基础以后,建设新的更高质量的稳固房屋,他们搬离并捐赠尼帕屋给没有经济基础的迁入社区的新家庭,以此达到循环使用的资源分配最优化。

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Resilient Cycle

弹性循环

A resilient cycle illustrates how the new proposal works in different periods: before floods come, neighbours gather to help carry the entire nipa huts onto the top of the community center where floods cannot reach; during the disaster, people living in the broken and flooded houses can shelter at the community center with sufficient food supply; after the water level goes down, the nipa huts are again carried back to where they were.

 

弹性循环阐述了新系统是在平时和灾时怎样运转的。在洪水来临之前,邻里吆喝着聚集,“嘿,咱们一起来搬房子吧!” 他们传承着巴朗盖互帮互助的精神,齐心协力帮助低收入家庭将他们的尼帕屋搬上社区中心的二层平台躲避洪水;而社区里会被洪水侵入的家庭,将去往社区平台的首层进行避难,洪水期变成了大家集体居住的生活模式,社区中心成为了一个公共社交场所。在洪水期间,人们在社区中心的公共厨房享用提前收割好的蔬菜,安心等待洪水的退去。

当水位下降以后,尼帕屋被搬回地面,弹性循环回到新的起点。洪水期也因此不再是日常生活中一个紧张焦虑的时期。

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From Resilient Community to Resilient City

从弹性社区到弹性城市

The building process different units are simultaneous or taking place over time. Not until one community unit completely gets improved and perfected, a new unit is implemented and starts its circle. To building the connection of independent units, the main roads are raised over the average water level of floods so that during disasters communities can still transport between each other.

As a strategy of urban renewal based on the core of Filipino spirit and grass-root power, the design of the resilient circle will gradually change the urban fabric, starting from one fleck, and subsequently spreading out into clusters.

每个社区单元的建设都是同时或先后进行的,它们各自独立,能够自给自足并逐步发展,而后通过新的路网相互连接,新的路网建设需要集合不同的社区之间的力量,路网标高高于一般洪水水位,以保证在一般洪水来临时,社区之间仍能保持联系,而整体来说,连接后的社区单元互相巩固,将成为更加完整和复杂的体系。

 

这是一个点状→网状的扩散。自下而上的城市更新策略。菲律宾强大的社区精神文化是这个方案得以发展下去的基础。在未来的理想愿景中,这个弹性的循环将渐渐从点状,扩散到集群,最后渐渐分布和渗入到区域的各个角落,成为强大的弹性网络。

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